Full Title: 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) AllSector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World
Author(s): Stanford University, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley, and Technical University of Berlin
Publisher(s): Stanford University, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley, and Technical University of Berlin
Publication Date: November 1, 2015
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We develop roadmaps for converting the all-purpose energy (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, and agriculture/forestry/fishing) infrastructures of each of 139 countries of the world to ones powered by wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). As of the end of 2014, 3.8% of the WWS energy generation capacity needed for a 100% world has already been installed in these countries, with Norway (67%), Paraguay (54%), and Iceland (39%) the furthest along The roadmaps envision 80% conversion by 2030 and 100% conversion of all countries by 2050. The transformation can reduce 2050 power demand relative to BAU by ~32.3% due to the efficiency of electricity over combustion and another ~6.9% due to end-use efficiency beyond that already occurring in the BAU case. Remaining annually averaged 2050 demand may be met with a mean of ~19.4% onshore wind, ~12.9% offshore wind, ~42.2% utility-scale photovoltaic (PV), ~5.6% residential rooftop PV, ~6.0% commercial/government/parking rooftop PV, ~7.7% concentrated solar power (CSP), ~0.74% geothermal power, ~0.72% wave power, ~0.07% tidal power, and ~4.8% hydropower. . .