Full Title: Annual Energy Outlook 2019 with projections to 2050
Author(s): U.S. Energy Information Administration
Publisher(s): U.S. Department of Energy
Publication Date: January 1, 2019
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The AEO2019 Reference case represents EIA’s best assessment of how U.S. and world energy markets
will operate through 2050, based on many key assumptions. For instance, the Reference case projection
assumes improvement in known energy production, delivery, and consumption technology trends.
• The economic and demographic trends reflected in the Reference case reflect current views of leading
economic forecasters and demographers.
• The Reference case generally assumes that current laws and regulations that affect the energy sector,
including laws that have end dates, are unchanged throughout the projection period. This assumption is
important because it permits EIA to use the Reference case as a benchmark to compare policy-based
• The potential impacts of proposed legislation, regulations, or standards are not included in the AEO2019
• The Reference case should be interpreted as a reasonable baseline case that can be compared with the
cases that include alternative assumptions.