Full Title: Hydraulic Fracturing & Water Stress: Water Demand by the Numbers—Shareholder, Lender & Operator Guide to Water Sourcing
Author(s): Monika Freyman
Publication Date: February 1, 2014
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This Ceres research paper analyzes escalating water demand in hydraulic fracturing operations across the United States and western Canada. It evaluates oil and gas company water use in eight regions with intense shale energy development and the most pronounced water stress challenges. The report also provides recommendations to investors, lenders and shale energy companies for mitigating their exposure to water sourcing risks, including improvement of on-the-ground practices. The research is based on well data available at FracFocus.org and water stress indicator maps developed by the World Resources Institute, where water stress denotes the level of competition for waterin a given region.