Full Title: Hydraulic Fracturing & Water Stress: Water Demand by the Numbers
Author(s): Monika Freyman
Publication Date: February 1, 2014
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This Ceres research paper analyzes escalating water demand in hydraulic fracturing operations across the United States and western Canada. It evaluates oil and gas company water use in eight regions with intense shale energy development and the most pronounced water stress challenges. The report also provides recommendations to investors, lenders and shale energy companies for mitigating their exposure to water sourcing risks, including improvement of on-the-ground practices.