Full Title: Pathways to Commercial Liftoff: Long Duration Energy Storage
Author(s): Katheryn Scott, Stephen Hendrickson, Nicole Ryan, Andrew Dawson, Kenneth Kort, Jill Capotosto, Benjamin Shrager, Vinod Siberry, Paul Spitsen, Susan Babinec, Patrick Balducci, and Zhi Zhou
Publisher(s): US Department of Energy
Publication Date: March 20, 2023
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These Pathways to Commercial Liftoff reports aim to establish a common fact base and ongoing dialogue with the private sector around the path to commercial liftoff for critical clean energy technologies. Their goal is to catalyze more rapid and coordinated action across the full technology value chain.
This report focuses on the application of LDES systems for electricity purposes (e.g., energy is stored and then dispatched in the form of electricity at a later time). To evaluate the commercial feasibility of LDES within the U.S., this effort consulted a wide range of existing research and modeled a U.S.-power-sector decarbonization pathway with varied decarbonization and technical scenarios to assess LDES’s role in the power sector and factors influencing LDES deployment pathways for electricity needs. The integrated modeling scenarios serve three purposes:
- 1. Estimating a business-as-usual trajectory: The business as usual (BAU) scenario represents the current trajectory and includes the impacts of the 2022 Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) but without additional commercialization interventions.
- 2. Forecasting least-cost pathways to meet decarbonization goals: Net-zero decarbonization scenarios forecast what it would take to reach net-zero by 2050 under different constraints on variable renewables and on transmission capacity. We forecast scenarios both with and without achieving interim clean power by 2035.
- 3. Exploring technology potential: Technology-specific sensitivities represent conditions for the uptake of different types of LDES under different operating parameters and competing technology conditions (e.g., net-zero without LDES).