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University Distinguished Professor
Michigan State University, Dept. of Chemical Engineering
Electricity generated from solar and wind has grown rapidly in the past few decades. However, its continued growth is imperiled by the high costs of grid integration. While solar and wind energy enjoy low operating costs, they are intermittent and variable on multiple time scales. Thus they may not be available when needed. Storing electrical energy is costly and so is providing backup power. Thus grid integration costs rise as the penetration of solar and wind electricity increases. There is a strong positive correlation between installed wind and solar capacity versus the residential energy price in 21 member countries of… [more]View Discussion