Full Title: A Solved Problem: Existing measures provide low-cost wind and solar integration
Author(s): Patrick Luckow, Tommy Vitolo, PhD, and Joseph Danie
Publisher(s): Synapes Energy Economics Inc.
Publication Date: 08/2015

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Description (excerpt):

Electric system operators already manage a rapidly growing fleet of variable renewable energy generators, and are preparing to integrate even more. As penetration of wind and solar continues to grow, system operators will face challenges posed by increased levels of variable resources. However, they can easily address these challenges with the planning and operational tools already at their disposal, and at a low cost.

Variable resources experience rapid swings in generation caused by both expected solar declines at the end of the day and unexpected swings due to forecast errors. If conventional fuels and other resources were more flexible in two key ways (minimum loads and ramping needs), they could better support wind and solar technologies.