Full Title: Co-Assessment of Costs and Environmental Impacts for Off-Grid Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage Systems
Author(s): Moritz Gutsch and Jens Leker
Publisher(s): Nature Communications
Publication Date: January 16, 2024
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Large-scale deployment of direct air carbon capture and storage (DACS) is required to offset CO2 emissions. To guide decision-making, a combined assessment of costs and environmental impacts for DACS systems is necessary. This report presents a cost model and life cycle assessment for several combinations of off-grid DACSs, powered by photovoltaic (PV) energy and heat pumps combined with battery storages to mitigate intermittency of the PV energy source. Utilization factors of DACSs are estimated for different locations, power of PV systems and battery capacities. They find that the cost optimal layout for a DACS in Nevada (USA) with a nominal CO2 removal capacity of 100,000tCO2 per year consists of 100 MW PV and 300MWh battery. Costs are $755 and $877 for gross and net removal of 1tCO2. The cost difference is explained by a carbon removal efficiency (CRE) of 88%. Of 16 evaluated environmental impact categories mineral resource use is most problematic. They conceive a dashboard which allows to track how changes to technical parameters, such as energy consumption or adsorbent degradation, impact costs, CRE and combined environmental impacts. In an optimized scenario and including tax credits, costs for net-removal of 1tCO2 will be $216 at a CRE of 93%.